All posts by Over My Head

Photography project


This week I was asked to take photos capturing people, places and things. I tried to make sure there was great lighting and focus for each image. Below are the images I took.

1. People – Individual: Frozen motion and shallow depth.
Group motion
2. Group – Blurred motion
People 3 – Creative, Rule of Thirds
People 4 – Shallow depth
Place unique angle
Place 1 – Unique angle
Place 2 – Unique Angle


Place deep depth
Place 3 – Deep depth, far subject (window) 
Things 1 – Shallow depth
things leading lines
Things 2 – Leading Lines
Things 3 – Variety/Creativity


I used my iPhone 7 Plus for all of these images and took all of them around midday or in the morning for the best lighting. For minimal adjustments such as brightness, contrast and saturation, I used Photoshop and added dust and light filters through the app Afterlight. For “People 3” I used Photoshop to add layers of PNG images to make it look a bit more creative. I tried to make each image look unique and different.


Over the weekend I asked a couple of my friends at Bona’s what they thought about the images. They suggested I adjust the saturation on “People 1” and “People 4.” They also thought a couple of the images looked better in Grayscale mode instead of CMYK, which I changed afterwards.


Website final reflection

I’ve developed as a writer this year as I began to think more analytically, and I’ve been able to put those analyses into words. I’m better at explaining myself than before, but I think there’s still room for improvement in that area. I believe my work has been most effective when I analyze things and discuss things that I’m passionate about (examples include the Wicca piece, art analysis and the mixtape). It’s easier to write about something when you’re extremely interested in it. I am least effective when it comes to explaining systems and why different things matter. Examples of this include the pieces on deception online, humor inciting violence and the parking at Bonaventureparking at Bonaventure. Though I found the topics interesting, I found it difficult to portray my feelings about them and my mindset in a concise way. I try to have an overall conclusion to my writing, wrapping up my train of thought, but it seems to end up muddled.

Things I’ve learned about digital writing include:

  • Writing can be much more interactive and fun to play around with than just physical/tangible writing.
  • You can add alternative text to images, videos and other links for those who might not have access to them or can’t look at them. It creates a realm where everyone is included.
  • Digital writing (and the internet, in general), allows for more discussion. Forum apps such as Twitter and Reddit allow more conversation. On the opposite side, though, a discussion can be closed. One can block users, disable comments, delete comments, etc.
  • People you’ve never even met can, and probably have, read your writing. On my Instagram, for example, 25% of my active followers are Belgian. I’ve never met or talked to someone from Belgium! The thought of that is cool, but can also sometimes be scary!

What I enjoy most about writing digitally is the fact that I’m writing for a wider audience, so I must think more about my words and alter it. Altering ones writing for an audience can easily be seen as a bad thing, but I look at it as a positive thing because it makes you think more about what you’re writing and how to portray your train of thought in a way that’s comprehensive and cohesive. When you’re not writing digitally, and more so for yourself, your thoughts may not be as organized.

I actually created this blog last year as a side project for another class, where I have to write things that I’m passionate about. I enjoy writing about books and lifestyle, so that’s what the blog mostly consisted of. I put the blog on the back burner for some time and abandoned it. This class brought the blog back to life, and though I may not be writing about books and lifestyle like I used to, I’m still writing about topics that I’m fairly interested in, including music, Wicca, art and history. I’ve tried to make the blog visually appealing and entertaining, as I’ve added videos, pictures, playlists and presentations to my posts. A blog post that’s all just text can be considered boring, so I think it’s important to throw in links and images that can entertain the viewer and make them do more than just read. I’m probably most proud of the content I’ve put out that’s genuine to my personality and interests, including my remix work and art/history analysis. I’m also proud of my ability to link different topics to one another and my ability to include examples of what I’m talking about. I wish I wrote more blog posts similar to the ones I’ve written in the past, about what I’m passionate about, but the work on this blog over this semester have been this class, so I didn’t really do that as much as I did before, obviously.

Overall, I’m proud of my work on this blog over this semester and I know my writing has improved due to my work.

Blog Post 3 – Deception hurts. Online and Offline

The ability to be deceived online is as equal as it is to be deceived offline, in my opinion, but the time frame that one is deceived is probably shorter IRL than online. When you see someone face-to-face, you can see how they react (or don’t react) to certain things. You can see their behaviors and determine if it’s normal or sketchy. Oftentimes, you can Google their names or their image and find out a lot about them.

On the contrary, we are most likely to lie and deceive online than we are offline. We put our best digital foot forward and create a collage of what we want the world to see. We draft images and messages to convey how we feel, or what we want people to think we feel. We censor ourselves and set up our own guidelines for the person we’re painting digitally. When we have given life to our Frankenstein-like digital double, what that double does is under our control. What the world sees online is often the one thing in we can control, at least for some people. That’s why we spend so much time pruning and perfecting it. Little lies and half-truths can easily slip out, because, if we’re talking to someone whom we’ve never met, what’s the harm? What they don’t know can’t hurt them, right?

Ethically, I don’t believe online deception is any better or worse than offline deception.

Reading the tale described by Koerner, my mind went right to Brittani Louise Taylor, a YouTuber I watched when I was in elementary/middle school. She posted humorous skits, but after a while, I unsubscribed due to me becoming older and growing to enjoy different content.

Two years ago, I searched her up once more when I was feeling nostalgic and just wanted to know what she was up to and if she was still posting. I saw that she had met this guy online, who was handsome with an accent and seemingly charming. He wasn’t a YouTuber himself, but a doctor who enjoyed tennis in his free time. Then, I saw the video that they were engaged, and she was pregnant. Everything seemed fine in BLT’s life. Months later, I saw that her fiancé was no longer in the videos. Practically all of the videos that featured her fiancé were either deleted or private, his face blurred out. Things had “changed” she said but couldn’t give details due to legal issues. She promised that everything would be explained soon, though.

It was when Shane Dawson released the second part of his Conspiracy Theories series two months ago, that Taylor’s story was explained. Milos Mihajlovic, Taylor’s ex-fiance, deceived Taylor on multiple occasions, with him and his mother suspected to be involved in Serbian human trafficking. Mihajlovic met Taylor via Tinder. Taylor was instantly smitten with his impressive backstory, good looks and charm. He requested money from her on several occasions, in which she obliged. At one point, he even faked having cancer. Once he got her pregnant, he took much pride in it and his mother came over to live with them and see Taylor’s pregnancy through. When their son, Misha, was born, his mother took him out of Taylor’s arms and kept on saying “my baby.” Milos, was insistent on Taylor and Misha going back to Serbia with him. Taylor later noted that a healthy baby boy was worth a lot of money in Serbia.

She received sole custody of Misha and a restraining on Milos. She changed Misha’s name to Rex and authorities would be alerted if he was to ever be swindled out of the country. To Taylor’s dismay, another woman is already in Milos’s thrall and had a baby with him. Taylor fears for this new woman.

Taylor’s story is an instance where she was deceived both online and offline. She became hooked through online deception, but it was prolonged through online deception.

The case of Elrod may not have been as dangerous as Brittani’s, but that didn’t make it any less unethical. Luckily for both cases, they got out of it physically unharmed, but the fallout has changed their lives forever.

Blog Post 2: Surveillance and China’s Social Credit System

The Black Mirror episode, “Nosedive” premiered on Netflix in October 2016. With Bryce Dallas Howard as the lead, Lacie, the episode is set in a world where people can rate one another. These ratings effect where Lacie can live, her transportation and how others around her choose to interact with her. Her obsession to get a perfect rating makes her end up in jail, with an extremely low rating, screaming profanities at a man in a cell across from her, no longer caring about the rating.

What if I told you there is a country that has a system eerily similar to the one in “Nosedive”? Well, there is.

The Chinese government is developing at Social Credit System, described as a “national reputation system,” which is intended to be in full swing by next year.

The system is coordinated by the Central Leading Group for Comprehensively Deepening Reforms, a policy building body set up under Communist China. Multiple firms, including Alibaba Group, Tencent, transportation networks and dating services, began working to create the system with the People’s Bank of China in 2015.

The government has already started deducting credit points from the people, starting with Sesame Credit in 2015, which deducted points from people who defaulted in court fines.

In February 2018, the Social Credit System reached a new high (or low, depending) in Shanghai using the Honest Shanghai app, which uses facial recognition to browse government records and then rate users.

A month later, millions of citizens were blacklisted from flights and train trips due to their credit score, just like Lacie was in “Nosedive.” Implementation plans for the system also include publicly disclosing “untrustworthiness” ratings.

So, the Chinese government and several private firms are collecting citizen data through automated algorithms to keep tabs on the population. Data that the government and firms can track include location, friends, health records, insurance, private messages, financial position, shopping history, dating behavior and more.

With this data, they are able to have more control over the masses. Fining people becomes easier, thus giving the government and firms more money. This surveillance seems to cover every Chinese citizen, but that seems difficult to find out. Are government officials and the CEOs of the firms tracked down? Maybe. If they are, will they be affected just like any other Chinese citizen? It’s hard to say when so much of this data collecting isn’t transparent with the public.

Full implementation of the plan includes rewards/punishments for the people based on their score. By the end of 2018, 17.5 million flights had been denied to travelers, but the reasons for their placement on the blacklist is unknown.

Another punishment is placed on children. If their parents have low scores, it can effect where they go to school.

The biggest Chinese dating site, Baihe, allows its users to post their scores. Now, one’s score can really effect one’s social life.

Religious rights (well, rights in the US) are taken away from those in China. Those who report Muslims to officials are rewarded, whereas those practicing are punished. The same goes to those who practice Falun Gong, forcing practitioners to renounce their religious beliefs.

Rewards include easier access to loans and jobs and faster internet speed, whereas punishments are the opposite. The system has also been used to prevent people from rent hotel rooms and using credit cards. Even excessive gaming reduces one’s score.

I personally don’t believe this type of surveillance is necessary, at least not to effect people personally. If it was only used on business, I think I could get behind it. Laws are in place already in China and elsewhere to reward and punish people for social activity, why perpetuate it further? What affect does buying and online gaming habits have on the wider community? There is no reason to punish people further. It only causes a greater distrust between the people and the government. In my opinion, it’s like the Chinese government is purposely trying to get citizens to revolt. With so much cause for distrust and hate, the Chinese government is currently the equivalent of someone who has “kick me” written on their back.

In Szymielewicz’s article on Quartz, what big data collectors know about US citizens through social profiling is described. Luckily, in the US there are apps that can provide us with a bit more protection than usual.

Encrypted messaging apps like Signal and Telegram can be used to keep our conversations private. One has to be careful, though, as popular messaging apps, such as WhatsApp are owned by Facebook. So, one has to check who owns the app and look at their privacy policies.

To prevent online tracking, apps like Privacy Badger and NoScript block ads and third-party trackers.

Though there are several apps that can claim that your information will be kept private, the most important thing people can do in the face of big data companies and government surveillance is to talk about it. Europe, as mentioned in the Quartz article, is already making strides for more transparency between big data collectors and consumers. There’s no reason we can’t do the same in the US and other countries, such as China.

What is mansplaining?

According to, mansplaining is “(of a man) to comment on or explain something to a woman in a condescending, overconfident, and often inaccurate or oversimplified manner.”

Although some might not know what mansplaining means, one can bet that every woman has experienced the phenomenon at some point or another. The term has been used to describe the likes of Matt Damon, Jimmy Iovine, Mitt Romney and more. Many women have used the term when describing situations in which men have said something condescending towards them, not necessarily trying to explain anything to them.

The results of an Instagram poll seen by over 300 people showed that 39 out of 40 women have been “mansplained” to and that 12 out of 15 men have either heard or participated in mansplaining. (Please note that the definition of mansplaining was not provided before the poll was taken).

These results prove that most women have been talked down to before by a man. More women were willing to participate in the poll than men were, which provides some curiosity as to why only 15 men answered their respective question, while there were 40 women who answered theirs. The demographic who viewed the poll was evenly divided by gender.

Some reasons for why men did not participate in the poll could be because:

  • They are aware of their own or someone else’s involvement in mansplaining, and did not vote out of guilt or stubbornness.
  • They are not aware of what mansplaining means.
  • They are not aware of any unintentional gender biases they harbor.
  • They don’t like participating in Instagram polls.

When looking at some of the possible reasons behind men’s lack of participation, it can seem like I’m pitting one gender against the other, but that’s not the case. Mansplaining, although it can seem extremely negative, does not mean that the man who does it is a bad person. More often than not, men aren’t even aware of how their words are perceived or aren’t aware of any biases they may have against women.

One example of this is when a man told a woman, “I think you spelled your name wrong.” As silly as that statement is, what harbors underneath it isn’t as silly. The fact that the man thought the woman was daft enough to spell her name wrong (which she didn’t) is insulting, as harmless as the statement may have seemed to the man. Why did the man think she spelled her own name wrong? Is it a rare name that can easily be misspelled? Or does the man think the woman isn’t smart enough to even spell her own name? This is just one small, but telling example of what mansplaining is and how much of a gray area it can be.

This post was made with positive intent. The intent being to explain what mansplaining is and show how common it can be. Everyone should be more mindful of their words and look within themselves to discover any unintentional biases they may have.


Does humor incite violence?

I honestly feel like the relationship between humor and violence (in relation to the mosque shooting) is almost as backwards as the relationship between video games and violence (for example, the aftermath Columbine and other shootings). Perhaps it’s a matter of people watching what they say, but what progress does that allow us?

Blaming humor for violent acts made by others is liking pointing a finger. The people mentioned in the shooter’s manifesto are now being attacked and blamed for the act. It’s a witch hunt. I am sure there are people mentioned in the manifesto and/or live stream who believe the act in New Zealand was a terrible thing (PewDiePie), and some who intentionally incited violence (Dylan Roof). When we read the list of names mentioned in the manifesto, we are only fueling the fire. When we call these people out and push people to dislike them just because a lunatic (who actually KILLED people) mentioned their name, progress has ceased. Are we so animalistic that we pounce on something just because it makes a weird noise?

It seems impossible to attack an opponent who uses humor, but what can we do aside from bring attention to it or ignore it?  If we use digital writing to address this type of humor, we will only appeal to the people who generally agree with us. The trolls will keep trolling.

There can be a gray area between laughing with others and laughing at others, so it’s important to be able to spot the difference. Negative humor is insensitive, can break down confidence, is offensive, puts people against one another, reinforces stereotypes and is just plain ol’ rude. Positive humor, though, still exists, as there is humor that is based on empathy, building confidence, is inclusive, brings people closer and is actually funny.

A popular TV entity, which I believe is a conduit for both positive and negative humor, is the infamous Saturday Night Live.

A couple of weeks after 9/11, SNL invited the mayor of NYC, firefighters and police officers to join the stage for the opening monologue. After a time of American grief, “comedians were at a loss.” The mayor maintained that it was important for institutions like SNL to continue on. Lorne Michaels asked, “Can we be funny?” The mayor responded, “Why start now?”

Through this statement, the Mayor Giuliani supported laughter as a remedy to the tragedy and heartbreak that surrounds us.

SNL, though, is also known for their not-so-funny skits. For example, their ISIS skit with Dakota Johnson, which the internet did not find funny…at all. People were quick to point out that making a joke out of a group that actually slaughters people was in poor taste and inconsiderate to the families of the victims. And, of course, SNL did not respond to the backlash.

Jeet Heer does not do much when bringing thoughtful ideas to the table that can actually be used to combat the type of “jokiness” he describes. With a pack mentality, it can be hard to knock the jokesters off their pedestal by ignoring them, when several other people will be laughing along with them.

This may or may not sound like a bad idea, but I think one of the best ways to make a joke die down quickly is by asking the jokester to explain the joke. The person making the joke might make a jab at you and say that you’re stupid for asking, but then that just makes them look like an asshole and someone who doesn’t understand the meaning behind their own words. If they do end up explaining the “joke,” it turns up dead due to over-analyzation. Then, it’s just not funny anymore. It also makes the person making the joke to realize what they are saying.

I suggest we try addressing the jokes as tasteless, but we shouldn’t get caught up in fighting fire with fire.

#Don’tMansplainMe: The First Steps to Creating a Social Media Campaign for Social Good


“Mansplain – the explanation of something made by a man, generally to a woman, in a manner regarded as condescending or patronizing.”

In a strategic communication class I am currently taking with Professor DeSimone, my classmates and I discussed biases around the St. Bonaventure campus. Many female students voiced how they were talked down upon by males in higher positions than them, in comparison to how they talk to other men. This sparked up a conversation of “mansplaining” and unintentional gender biases that men on the Bonaventure campus may have.

I’m treating this project mostly as a pitch for a social media entity that already exists, for example, Bona Brave.

Getting some research out of the way, I posted three questions on my personal Instagram:

  1. Ladies, have you ever been mansplained to? Yes or no.
  2. What is the most condescending thing a man has said to you?
  3. Do you believe unintentional gender bias is a problem at St. Bonaventure? Yes or no.
  4. Gentlemen, have you ever heard or participated in mansplaining? Yes or no.
  5. Is gender bias/discrimination a problem around the world?

The results, as I write this, have not come all the way through yet, but so far, 100% of voters said they have been mansplained to. One of the biggest problems that I plan on tackling with this campaign is that many people don’t believe they are gender biased and don’t notice their own biases. The goal is to challenge people to realize and understand their gender biases, unintentional or not.

I want to create this social media campaign to hopefully better the campus community in some way. It’s important to me because I understand what it feels like to not be taken seriously due to my gender. I understand the importance of having to look inwards to find answers and I hope with this campaign, others can do the same. Addressing the issue of gender bias will benefit everyone. It will help women in that they won’t feel discriminated against, and it will help some men not make complete ass hats out of themselves.

By showcasing examples of gender discrimination/bias and explaining what it is, as well as it’s effects, I believe the campaign can take off with the hashtag “Don’t Mansplain Me.” Utilizing social media and the Internet to find some answers, this campaign can be made possible. I do believe I will need the help of others (for example, voters on my social account) to gather a good amount of data to work with to explain my reasoning and to create groundwork for the campaign.

Over the next couple of weeks, I will research the gender bias issues on campus and beyond. Then, I will work on creating an argument and good purpose for the campaign, as well as a message. Finally, the creative pieces for the campaign as well as the social media posts will come together. This can potentially go outside of social media and can be something that’s physically on campus. Posters, columns in student publications, on-campus discussions and more could possibly arise from this campaign.

The parking at Bonaventure sucks…but it could be better.

In one of our last classes we discussed how unfair the parking system is at St. Bonaventure. I was pleased to know that my fellow classmates agreed that the whole situation just isn’t fun. Parking isn’t the greatest for students who live on campus, especially for those who don’t live in Shay or Loughlen Halls, and even then, it can get frustrating. The fact that the closest overnight parking for on-campus students other than the limited Shay/Lo lot is by the tennis courts is annoying.

To read about where students, visitors and employees can currently park click here.

When talking about it with friends, I jokingly said there should be a march on campus with people chanting, “We are the people who live here!” It seems to me that employees can get better parking than the people who actually pay to live on campus. I believe that professors and other faculty members should be allowed the spots that are currently set aside for them, but I do not believe these lots should be closed off from students during the evening and during the weekends. If a faculty member parks in student parking, would they get a ticket? I’ve never seen or heard of it happening.

Above is a map of the Bonaventure campus that is given to students who purchase parking decals. The lots that aren’t in red surrounding buildings 26, 21, 22, 19, 18, M, D and C are for employees.

This is where it gets tricky, though. If the school allows students to park in faculty spots during the evenings, what’s most likely to happen is that students will forget to move their cars by the next morning, resulting in more tickets. So, either make students understand that they will have to move their cars by midnight or morning, or only have faculty spots available to students during the weekends. I think the latter would be a good compromise.

New parking rules could be as follows:

  • All student and employee spots from 5 p.m. Friday to midnight on Sunday can be taken by employees or students. Those who do not have proper decals or are parked in visitor parking spaces will be given a ticket. Visitor parking will remain the same during the weekends.
  • All parking spaces on Bonaventure Road are available for employees, visitors and students after 5 p.m.
  • During basketball games, all lots not set aside for visitors/ticketholders will be available on a first come, first serve basis.
  • Rules for handicap parking remain the same.

Some students suggested not allowing freshmen to bring cars, but unfortunately, I believe that would hinder progress. Freshmen being allowed cars is a big selling point for Bonaventure, at least, I know it was for me. Only allowing honors students certain privileges would also be hindering, no matter the good intent. In the grand scheme of things, I believe the changes above are minor, but gives more freedom to students who have certain concerns.

The only reason I would not have faculty spots become open to students during the evenings is because I think there would be more tickets flying around. Students will forget to move their cars before heading in for the night and the cars would be left in the mornings, making them susceptible to tickets and preventing employees to get reasonable spots.

Also, the second bullet addresses the current concerns of student athletes. Though there is no promise of them getting a spot, there is more of a chance for them to get a spot during practice times. Another possibility for this problem is to only allow faculty and student athletes the parking spots on Bonaventure Road after 5 p.m. To make sure this works, there would have to be a new parking decal created specially for student athletes.

Through these modifications I hope that students will be more satisfied with the parking at St. Bonaventure. If employee and student spots are ever available to visitors (other than during basketball games), this will lead to frustration to both employees and students. If visitors have more “power” over parking than they do right now, employee and student parking could be taken over by visitors. I only decided to make visitor parking remain the same due to how many people actually visit St. Bonaventure campus (which is a surprisingly large number).

No doubt, students would benefit the most from these changes. During basketball games, others could benefit from the changes, as well. To keep everything tame, though, the normal parking restrictions would have to be put back in place two hours after the game, at most, just to make sure visitors without parking passes aren’t bumming around campus.

I don’t believe the system modifications I created above are necessarily hindering. The system that is in place now is hindering. To make this system work, it would heavily rely on Safety & Security and whoever else gives out parking tickets. Parking restrictions would have to be as strict as they are now.

Overall, this system will benefit the community that lives on Bonaventure campus. Considering students are the ones who pay to attend Bonaventure, the parking system should benefit them the most. With the class sizes growing larger, parking will become more of an issue and it’s important to make sure that it’s working for everyone.

An analysis on Wicca

Now, before I get into this and for complete transparency, I was raised a Christian, with my mother being Episcopalian and my father a non-practicing Muslim. I really didn’t give much thought to religion until I entered, ironically, a Catholic university. I took one class in particular that really made me question a lot of what I was told growing up, with its main focus being on monotheistic beliefs. During this class I began to wonder a lot about polytheistic beliefs, which were not taught or mentioned in said class. I became mostly curious and interested in Wicca, a neo-pagan religion, or a “nature religion,” as some practitioners like to call it.

I’m not going to go in depth as to what they practice, you can do that on your own, but for the sake of this class I will analyze it. One of the first questions mentioned by the Allison Parrish prompts was ‘who gets to use this system?’. Freedom of religion in the U.S. allows anyone to practice whatever religion they want, but when I look at it in the context of Parrish’s discussion on hacking and the exclusion of Margaret Hamilton, a woman, I wonder what biases Wiccans may have about other people, or perhaps, biases people have about Wiccans.

Gerald Gardner, the “Father of Wicca.”

One of the first things I noticed during my research of Wicca was that most of the practitioners I saw online were women, though many Wiccans use the likes of Scott Cunningham and Gerald Gardner as guides of the faith. Wicca does attract women, that’s for sure, but I believe that’s only due to the emphasis on duality. There’s a “goddess” and a “god” which are equally worshipped…and perhaps that’s why some men are turned off from it. Due to many women practicing the faith openly, though, I can see why people assume that the religion is for women and not men. This isn’t the case at all.

“[I]t seems illogical and counter-productive to relegate the God along with male practitioners to a minor role in other Wiccan rites. While I am certainly not advocating the dissolution of all female-only covens, I DO encourage them to give some serious consideration to allowing serious male practitioners to participate in their rites. This would present many opportunities for fellowship and the sharing of knowledge, which would surely outweigh any perceived disadvantages,” said Morgan Ravenwood at WitchVox.

Asking myself about the hindering of access, I really do think that to people who don’t know much about the religion can quickly assume that it’s some sort of “secret cult.” There is plenty of information about Wicca online, but I think that it’s also safe to say you’ll have to buy some books to fully grasp it at times. Studying the religion truly helps one understand it better and that personally goes with all religions. For example, as a Christian who picked up the Quran, I learned a lot of things I didn’t know about before. Though a born and raised Christian, I defended Islam so hard in class one time, my professor asked me if I was a Muslim afterwards. I’ve learned that it’s easy to defend a religion when you know more about it.

Learning about Wicca, I’ve discovered that there is no “canon” book that one can just look to for all questions asked, neither is there one path. So, when you’re a solitary practitioner, it can seem a bit difficult to find your way, especially if you don’t know anyone who practices the faith personally.

The late Scott Cunningham, “an ambassador of the pagan way of life.”

In fact, many practitioners today look to the writings of Gardner and Cunningham for information and advice. Gardner is regarded as the “Father of Wicca” and many traditionalists look to his writings. Cunningham appeals more to the “newer” generation of Wiccans and is way more understanding in his writings, answering questions like “should I practice when I’m sick” and “do I have to tell my landlord what I do on full moons?”

As for there being no set canon, many practitioners use Gardner’s book of shadows, but covens may use a grimoire, or something far older than Gardner’s text as reference. Solitary practitioners often look to Cunningham’s text about Wicca and the craft. Many practitioners, though, create their own book and compile all of their knowledge about the religion and its rites into one or multiple books. To make a long story much shorter, each practitioner finds their own path, involving study, prayer, meditation and practice, not just one book. The internet makes it much easier, though, for people to find their way in the religion.

The main “rule” that all Wiccans follow, though, is the threefold law. Whatever you put out into the universe, positive or negative, will come back to you three times. As the Wiccan Rede states, “An ‘ye harm none, do what ye will.”

For the most part, I’ve found the Wiccan community to be quite inviting. There are definitely misconceptions about the religion, and I urge people to research Wicca as well as any other religion you have questions on.

Here are a few misconceptions about Wicca that I thought I’d just throw in for the heck of it:

  • Witchcraft and Wicca are the same thing
  • Wiccans worship the devil
  • Wiccans sacrifice animals and humans
  • Wiccans have a “dark Bible”
  • Pentagrams are the symbol of the devil

Misconceptions about Islam

Misconceptions about Christianity

Misconceptions about Judaism

Misconceptions about Hinduism

Misconceptions about Buddhism

Misconceptions about Satanism

Misconceptions about Taoism/Daoism

The list can go on…

Misconceptions about the human psyche 

Time and Space: A Mixtape

time and space
Image by Amber Canbek

Originally for this project, I wanted to create a mashup video much similar to ones I’ve done in the past. I was either going to do “Nocturne No. 2 in E flat Major, Op. 9,2” by Chopin playing over silent film scenes or “Elvis” by Lana Del Rey playing over Presley family home videos. Due to time constraints and having to layout an entire student publication by myself, I opted to create a “mixtape” of sorts.

My main purpose for this remix work was to showcase how sounds and artists of the past influence the works we listen to today. The odd numbered songs in the playlist were the songs of the “past” and the even numbered songs are pieces influenced by the song before it. I found that I was most successful in the lineup of the songs. I was inspired by Al Shipley’s article in Complex when he was describing people having to flip the cassette tape or vinyl record. The listener could take a break from the music and listen further later, if wanted. “Side A” of my mixtape (the first six songs) are more upbeat, whereas the songs on the B-Side are more mellow in tone and progressively get slower in bpm.

One of the difficulties I faced, though, was selecting the actual songs. There were two artists in particular I KNEW I wanted to feature on the playlist, and that was Fleetwood Mac and Lana Del Rey. The other artists I chose were artists I’ve previously listened to, but to create a connection between them all, I had to do a bit of research. The songs by FM and Del Rey I had to choose based on what artist and song they were paired with, which was also difficult. For example, I originally was going to have FM’s “Dreams” followed by the Dixie Chick cover of “Landslide,” as the final two songs on the playlist. I decided, though, that it would be much more fitting to end the playlist with Billie Eilish, who is the youngest out of all of the artists.

Most of my time on the playlist was spent actually listening to my options and my playlist from beginning to end, perfecting it. I also spent a bit of time researching who influenced who, which came mostly from interviews with the artists and music reviews. The beauty of the playlist, though, is that several of the older artists influenced more than one of the younger artists. For example, FM not only influenced Florence Welch, but also Lana Del Rey and Harry Styles. Lana Del Rey herself influenced Billie Eilish and worked with Stevie Nicks of FM, as well as Florence Welch. The Rolling Stones, Led Zeppelin and The Beatles were also major influences for different members of FM. So, a lot of paths were crossed.


Many people from this generation will recognize the opening guitar chords of both “(I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction” by The Rolling Stones and “Do I Wanna Know?” by the Arctic Monkeys. It’s been noted by several music critics that the Arctic Monkeys sound is a modern take on The Rolling Stones, and eerily similar.

The most similar, though, out of all of these pairings are “Immigrant Song” by Led Zeppelin and “Highway Tune” by modern rock band, Greta Van Fleet. Ever since they hit the main stream scene, comparisons have been drawn between Greta Van Fleet and Led Zeppelin. The band has admitted to being inspired by Led Zeppelin, with the main vocalist having a similar sound to Robert Plant.

Florence Welch’s stage persona has been compared to that of Stevie Nicks for years now. “It’s pretty much my favorite song of all time,” Welch said before performing a cover of “The Chain” at Glastonbury, “All of my heroes are in this band.” Welch has also covered “Silver Springs,” before as well.

“Ship to Wreck” has the same freeing energy and angst as “The Chain.” A match made in heaven, if you asked me.


As I mentioned before, the “B-side” of my mixtape takes a more mellow turn. Beginning with the iconic tune “Hotel California” by the Eagles, the beat is instantly recognizable and makes the listener interested. Harry Styles has been noted to attend several Eagles gigs and is listed as one of his greatest influences. Though “Sign of the Times” doesn’t have a memorable guitar solo like “Hotel California,” the lyrics are quite similar in their almost prophetic meanings. Both songs are about a journey of sorts, a type of “go forth” vibe.

Also mentioned before, Harry Styles was also greatly influenced by Fleetwood Mac, who he has performed with before. Fleetwood Mac’s Rumours album was the 1978 album of the year at the Grammy’s and stayed at number one on the Billboard 200 for 31 non-consecutive weeks, only being usurped once by Hotel California. In the ’70s, Fleetwood Mac and the Eagles were known to be in a friendly competition. Lead vocalist, Stevie Nicks, has worked with all of the Eagles at some point during her career, and even dated a couple of them in her time.

“I think they were a defining moment in the rock n roll world that I love. You couldn’t really love the Eagles music and be an Eagles fan and actually know them and not aspire to greatness yourself,” said Nicks in an Eagles documentary.

As “Sign of the Times” ends, a more hopeful and recognizable tune begins to play. “Here Comes the Sun,” written at Eric Clapton’s house by George Harrison, is one of the most well-known Beatles songs. The song following it, “Tomorrow Never Came” by Lana Del Rey, actually references the Beatles and was a duet with John Lennon’s son, Sean. The song certainly alludes to the Beatles’ “Tomorrow Never Knows” and is believed to be a sequel to it.

“And I could put on the radio/To our favorite song/Lennon and Yoko/We will play all day long/”Isn’t life crazy?”, I said/Now that I’m singing with Sean,” Lana croons in the bridge.

There is definitely a sense of nostalgia written within the song. Also featured on the Lust for Life album is “Beautiful People, Beautiful Problems,” which Del Rey sings with Stevie Nicks.

Along with Lana Del Rey, The Neighbourhood is one of the younger influences on the playlist. Similar to “Tomorrow Never Came,” “Baby Came Home 2 / Valentines” is a sequel to one of their previously released works, “Baby Came Home.” The Neighbourhood has actually been known to work with Dey Rey, with an unofficial release of their song, “Daddy Issues,” having Del Rey on backing vocals.

Following “Baby Came Home 2” is “ocean eyes,” by Billie Eilish. The two songs have an ethereal and atmospheric sounds, with “ocean eyes” being the calmer of the two. The Neighbourhood’s album, Wiped Out, (which “Baby Came Home 2” appears on), is listed as one of Eilish’s most influential albums.

“It touches on a lot of different emotions at once,” said Eilish about Wiped Out. 

Eilish also listed “Baby Came Home 2,” “Without You” by Lana Del Rey and “Something” by The Beatles as a few songs on her Valentine’s Day playlist.

As mentioned before, many paths are crossed as far as musical influences go, with influences seeming to go through time and space to inspire artists of the future. Showcasing this phenomena was my main goal with this playlist. You can listen to all of the songs on the Spotify playlist below.